Areas Where Most Pedestrian Accidents Occur. The Problem of Pedestrian Injuries and Fatalities Understanding Your Local Problem Answers to the Problem of Pedestrian Injuries and Fatalities A Comprehensive Response to Pedestrian-Vehicle Collisions The patterns mentioned above are general and based on research from several different communities. You should study the particular patterns in your own community, as they may vary from these general patterns. Understanding the factors that contribute to your community's problem will help you formulate your own local analysis questions, determine measures of good effectiveness, recognize key points of intervention, and select appropriate responses.
No single factor is fully responsible for the problem of pedestrian-vehicle collisions that result in injuries and deaths. A combination of unsafe pedestrian behavior, vehicle and driver factors, problematic physical environments, and other special conditions contribute to them. 7 This list of factors is not exhaustive, but rather highlights some common causes of pedestrian-vehicle collisions that result in injuries and deaths. Figure 1 also lists several specific causes of pedestrian-vehicle collisions along each side of the triangle, as well as a set of special conditions that you need to consider.
Each of them is described below. Unsafe pedestrian behavior is a major factor in pedestrian injuries and deaths. In a recent study of 7,000 pedestrian and vehicle crashes in Florida, researchers found that pedestrians were at fault in 80 percent of these incidents, 8 Similarly, in a UK, UK. Study, pedestrian behavior accounted for 90 percent of crashes in which a vehicle crashed into a pedestrian, 9 Reckless walking is often considered a problem.
In one study, the frequency of reckless crossing was found to be a function of city size, where reckless crossing incidents increase as the city's population increases. 12 In addition, the same study noted that 71 percent of all fatal pedestrian and vehicle accidents in the United States in 2000 occurred in urban areas. The problem of crossing recklessly, however, is not limited to urban areas. Although researchers found that urban areas have three times as many reckless bystanders, suburban reckless crossing can be a problem due to the lack of sidewalks separating pedestrians from vehicles, 13 Despite the link between reckless crossing and pedestrian injuries and deaths, reckless crossing remains a low-priority police concern.
One reason could be that police tend to group pedestrian violations into general traffic violations, which they often consider minor popular offenses, 14 Consequently, the police may not enforce reckless crossing violations as actively as other, more serious crimes. For example, the widely touted crackdown on Reckless Street in New York City actually resulted in only 99 reckless crossing tickets being issued for an entire year during the crackdown. This level of application is minuscule considering the size of New York's pedestrian population. If many pedestrians cross recklessly without injury, the number of pedestrian-vehicle collisions could be high, but the risk of a crash for each reckless crossing incident could be quite low.
There is little research available on the risk rate of recklessly crossing. To calculate such a risk, we would need to know the rate of crackle accidents and the frequency of reckless crossings. That said, the following sections describe several factors that, when identified, should help your agency go beyond enforcing only reckless crossing to reduce actual pedestrian and vehicle crashes that result in injuries and fatalities. Some pedestrians may be injured or killed because they are not aware of their own risk of being involved in a pedestrian-vehicle collision.
Pedestrians often have a perception of low risk when they travel frequently on familiar routes. In fact, pedestrians who regularly use certain paths or crosswalks are likely to reduce waiting time at crosswalks. Conversely, pedestrians who have been involved or who have witnessed a pedestrian and vehicle crash are willing to wait longer at crosswalks. Drunk driving is the cause of many traffic accidents around the world.
Similarly, drinking contributes to the unsafe behavior of pedestrians that causes collisions with vehicles. Pedestrians who have been drinking are at an even greater risk of dying in traffic, accounting for 39 to 60 percent of all pedestrian deaths. 22 Of pedestrian fatalities as a result of traffic accidents, between 42 and 61 percent of pedestrians with fatal injuries had blood alcohol content levels (BAC) of 0.10 percent or more, 23 Drivers with this BAC level are considered disabled by the legal definition and cannot legally drive, 24 Although they are also disabled by this legal definition, it is not illegal for pedestrians to walk with a BAC level of 0.10 percent. However, pedestrians with disabilities can contribute to pedestrian-vehicle collisions because they are likely to have a slower reaction time, have poor judgment, and are not likely to evaluate the safety of walking conditions.
For example, while pedestrians who have not drunk alcohol are more aware of the increased risk of walking, drunk pedestrians tend to be more oblivious to traffic conditions, poor lighting and bad weather, 25 As a result, drunk pedestrians are more likely to be injured or killed by vehicles because of their inability to recognize hazardous conditions when walking and in traffic. Finally, the more you drink, the greater the risk of being involved in a pedestrian-vehicle accident that results in a death. One study found that of 176 pedestrian fatalities, 86 of them involved pedestrians who had been drinking, almost all of whom had BAC of 0.10 percent or more, 26 pedestrian perceptions of crossing devices. Some pedestrians may not understand or be unaware of signals that transmit safe walking procedures, 27 Therefore, some pedestrians may inadvertently enter roads and be hit by oncoming traffic because they are confused.
For example, some pedestrians may cross recklessly simply because they don't know where and when they have the right of way. Pedestrian speed and pace of life. Pedestrian non-compliance with signs and signs is a major factor in pedestrian-vehicle collisions across the country, 28 Some researchers have suggested that pedestrian non-compliance could be due to the pace of life often associated with larger cities. For example, pedestrians move faster in big cities compared to small towns, 29 A researcher also found that whether male pedestrians were in a hurry or not influenced their decision to cross the street when the traffic light was red.
Crossing devices that don't match the speed at which urban pedestrians want to travel can also encourage poor pedestrian behavior. For example, if pedestrians have to wait a relatively long time to receive a walking signal, they are more likely to cross the middle block to avoid delays 31. In addition, if a pedestrian tries to go to the opposite side of an intersection after crossing a street, the pedestrian will have to cross the adjacent street. However, the timing of the crossing devices may not correspond to the walker's directional path (see Figure. Therefore, after crossing a street, a rushing pedestrian may be less inclined to wait for a walking signal to cross the next street.
Some researchers have found that significantly fewer pedestrians crossed recklessly when there were short wait times to cross the second street, 32 Pedestrian perceptions of application risk. Some pedestrians may comply with walking regulations because of their personal preferences or habits, while other pedestrians calculate the risk of being caught by the police based on the benefits of recklessly crossing the street, 33 Because many cities and police departments do not give high priority to enforcing the reckless crossing, the risk of being caught and cited is quite low. Enforcing traffic laws is unpopular with officers because it is perceived as trivial and can cause friction between citizens and police. 34 Consequently, failure to enforce or sanction could result in increased disregard for pedestrian safety standards, resulting in higher accident rates.
Another problem related to pedestrian laws is the potential for pedestrians to ignore or misunderstand pedestrian laws that designate where and when they have a right of way. Some drivers may also be unaware of their rights and obligations or the rights and duties of pedestrians. In addition, a pedestrian safety test at a police department revealed that the vast majority of officers had difficulty identifying pedestrian safety laws and the rights and duties of drivers and pedestrians. This can also contribute to collisions between pedestrians and vehicles.
Like pedestrians, drivers may also be unaware of their own risk of hitting a pedestrian. In addition, some of the factors that affect pedestrians' perception of risk can also influence the driver's perception of risk. For example, alcohol, familiarity with travel routes, and cell phone use could reduce a driver's ability to recognize the risk of hitting a pedestrian. Speeding is one of the main factors contributing to vehicle crashes.
Not surprisingly, then, that speeding is also an important consideration when examining pedestrian-vehicle collisions. Speed influences these crashes in two different ways. First of all, speed increases the chances of a collision. Quite simply, higher vehicle speeds make it more difficult for drivers to see pedestrians and, at the same time, high speeds reduce the amount of time the driver and pedestrian have to avoid a collision, 39 seconds, in the event of an accident, the faster the vehicle, the more serious the injury to the pedestrian.
For example, a pedestrian hit at 40 miles per hour has an 85 percent chance of dying, while the probability drops to 45 percent at 30 miles per hour and 5 percent at 20 miles per hour, 40 Traffic volume. The higher the pedestrian and vehicle traffic, the greater the chances that pedestrians and vehicles will meet on the street. As mentioned above, most pedestrian injuries and deaths occur in urban areas, undoubtedly partly because cities have more vehicles and more pedestrians compared to non-urban areas, 41 The physical design of a city and its pedestrian transportation routes and crossing devices may encourage some to pedestrians cross or enter roads in unsafe situations. The following environmental characteristics could encourage dangerous pedestrian behavior:.
Pedestrian crossing devices meet two. First, they regulate behavior by indicating what is right and what is wrong. For example, the “Do Not Walk” sign indicates that it is wrong to cross at the time. Second, crossover devices help people judge.
The same “Do Not Walk” sign also indicates that it may be dangerous to cross at that time. However, when intersections lack walking signs, crossing devices, or crosswalks, it is difficult for pedestrians to determine appropriate behavior or judge the safety of a particular hiking trail. As a result, lack of signs at intersections can contribute to collisions between pedestrians and vehicles that result in injuries and deaths. As mentioned, pedestrians can avoid awkward intersection crossings because they slow down the pace of travel.
However, interblock crossing is involved in 55 percent of all fatal pedestrian-vehicle accidents, 43 If convenient crosswalks were available at popular crossing points, pedestrians could cross these otherwise unsafe and illegal areas. Pedestrians are much less likely to cross the road recklessly when crossing distance increases, 44 This finding suggests that narrower roads could encourage unsafe pedestrian behavior. However, wider roads could promote higher vehicle speeds, which could lead to possible compensation with regard to the safety of. Fast-crossing signals can also create problems in some circumstances.
For example, wide roads (or widening roads as a strategy) could have the unintended consequence of putting specific groups of pedestrians at greater risk when signs do not allow enough time for these groups to cross safely. When pedestrian crossing schedules are established for the average pedestrian, slower pedestrians, the elderly, people with movement-related limitations, parents with children, etc., may not be able to fully cross before traffic starts again. In neighborhoods where the slowest pedestrians make up a significant portion of the population (for example,. The table below reveals an example of this type of problem and how the city addressed it.
Despite the initial effectiveness of the strategy, the City has established new efforts to reduce pedestrian-vehicle collisions on Queens Boulevard as recently as 2003,46 The lesson is that the solutions are not permanent and need to be reviewed as traffic and other conditions change. Poor sidewalk conditions can influence pedestrians to bypass safety and seek better conditions for walking on the street. In addition, bad sidewalks can be a particular problem for runners or other similar groups who prefer smooth surfaces for their activities (e.g., fast walkers and cyclists). Poor sidewalk conditions, including the absence of sidewalk cuts, also put people with movement-related limitations in a dilemma; the street is risky, but the sidewalk is impassable.
In addition to the conditions of the sidewalks themselves, obstructions around sidewalks could also be problematic. For example, in residential areas, shrubs and trees can protrude from sidewalks, making it difficult to get through. Leaves and other plant debris, or snow and ice, can also cause blockages when not removed quickly. In addition, cars in many congested urban and suburban areas are often parked across the sidewalk while parked in their own driveway.
This situation could also result in pedestrians having to leave the sidewalk to walk around cars. Absence of sidewalks in certain areas. Some travel routes don't have sidewalks. The absence of sidewalks could encourage or even force some pedestrians to walk on dangerous roads.
Again, people with limited mobility can choose the street rather than walking on grass, dirt, or uneven terrain. Pedestrians prefer to walk on wide sidewalks. In response to increased vehicle traffic volume, some central business districts have reduced sidewalk widths to accommodate traffic flow, 48 In addition, in some shopping districts, new sidewalk cafes reduce available walking space. As a result, pedestrians often exceed sidewalk capacity, encouraging pedestrian use of streets.
No studies were found that directly discuss whether this problem creates critical blocking points. However, given the other findings and what we know of other problems, critical failure points are very likely to occur. Special conditions are circumstances that accentuate one or more of the factors mentioned above and concentrate them at specific times (for example,. Patterns involving these special conditions can be difficult to detect.
For example, pedestrian and vehicle crashes involving shopping malls can spread across multiple shopping areas without a discernable access point on a map. Only if you were specifically looking for a pattern involving shopping malls would you see the pattern. Similarly, people with limited mobility can be involved in crashes in a variety of locations, and only by looking for the special characteristics of the victim would you notice that this group is particularly vulnerable. There are ten obvious and common special conditions listed below, but you should consider others that might be important in your community.
Although potentially difficult to detect, once detected, it may be easier to identify effective solutions; the circumstances may be peculiar enough to point to some obvious. A critical point of accidents between pedestrians and vehicles can occur because a place that is safe in good weather becomes a high risk if the weather is bad. Responses that may be effective in good weather may not work as well in bad weather. Creating climate-specific responses can be difficult, but you should consider doing so.
People who use wheelchairs or electric scooters to facilitate mobility often travel on the street rather than on sidewalks. The fact that they are slower than most cars and often unexpected puts them at great risk. Many people have temporary limited mobility, parents who push strollers or walk with very young children, or people who carry objects or push a shopping cart, for example, that can put them at greater risk of being hit by a vehicle. Some occupations require employees to do their jobs near traffic.
For example, police officers, construction workers, postmen, garbage collectors, and parking officers often work in close proximity. Local analysis in your community could reveal that these types of workers are more frequently involved in pedestrian-vehicle collisions than other types of pedestrians. When children and teens use the streets as play areas, this puts them in direct conflict with vehicles. Streets that cross areas with high concentrations of children and adolescents are possible accident sites.
However, it is not clear that restricting children's and adolescents' access to roads is the only way to achieve a net safety effect. For example, the Dutch have built mixed-use roads where the streets are designed as extensions of public space that are used for non-driving activities, such as walking, running and playing, rather than separate roads just for vehicle travel. They have also implemented this strategy to calm traffic. Parking areas near shopping malls could be very problematic, as there are fewer clear pedestrian paths.
As a result, pedestrians interact more with cars. In addition, pedestrians are often overloaded with children, packages, strollers, and other items. At the same time, drivers look for parking spaces, read store signs, avoid oncoming traffic, and have to deal with pedestrians. Therefore, parking areas are marked by both pedestrians and distracted drivers, increasing the chance of a crash.
In fact, one study found that the majority of a sample of pedestrian-vehicle collisions occurred in a business district, 52 Efforts to reduce crashes in those locations will likely require owner and supplier involvement. You should also consider walking along major highways as a special risk factor. For example, when a motorist's vehicle breaks down or runs out of gas on the road, the driver may get out of his car to inspect the problem or walk to the nearest gas station. By doing so, the person is exposed to high-speed traffic, without any form of physical separation from passing vehicles.
One-way busy streets can create a special hazard when motorists seeking vehicle traffic from only one direction don't realize that a pedestrian is crossing the street in the opposite direction to the one the motorist is looking. A popular attraction could be located across the street from where people live. For example, the only store or restaurant nearby could be across from a large housing complex. However, in some areas, there may not be a signposted crossing convenient for pedestrians traveling to such locations.
In this case, the solution could be to install a crosswalk device or crossings where pedestrians often cross the street to reach a popular attraction. In other cases, the solution could be to relocate needed services to the side of the road where most residents live, so they don't have to cross the road constantly. Unlicensed sellers selling multiple items (for example,. In some communities, children sell more and more on the street, especially during the summer.
Doing so provides those who are too young to legally work with a way to earn money for themselves and their families. 53 Some police departments have started fining street vendors, while encouraging young street vendors to sell their items from sidewalks, 54 Error sending emails. Separate multiple addresses with commas (,) Limit your note to 200 characters. The best way for pedestrians to limit their chances of suffering a traffic accident is to refrain from using their phones while walking down a busy street.
For example, while pedestrians who haven't drunk alcohol are more aware of the increased risk of walking, drunk pedestrians tend to be more oblivious to traffic conditions, poor lighting, and bad weather. The most recent fatal pedestrian accident was the death of Dwayne Haskins, an NFL quarterback who was hit and killed while crossing a highway in South Florida. Signals from other pedestrians affect the caution and walking behavior of pedestrians who share the same intersection or route. Data analysis and studies have shown that drivers and pedestrians are at fault for fatal accidents and injuries in the United States.
Because traffic speeds affect the risk and severity of pedestrian crashes, slowing speeds can reduce. Several States Are Helping Prevent Accidents by Taking Engineering Measures, Increasing Pedestrian Signage, Education, and Law Enforcement. Surprisingly, pedestrian accidents occurred only 11 percent during rain, snow, and fog conditions, compared to 89 percent during normal weather conditions. One study found that of 176 pedestrian deaths, 86 of them involved pedestrians who had been drinking, almost all of whom had BAC of 0.10 percent or more.
In fact, pedestrians who regularly use certain paths or crosswalks are likely to reduce waiting time at crosswalks. If drivers remain alert while driving motor vehicles, some accidents can be avoided even if the pedestrian is at fault. Florida's pedestrian mortality rate is 1.43, or 75.7% higher than the national pedestrian mortality rate and 114% higher than the national median. Statistics show a decline in pedestrian accidents, but numbers may be reduced if drivers and pedestrians take safety precautions.